Linda J. Seibert, MA, LPC, NCC - 719-362-0132 OR Elizabeth Moffitt, MA, LPCC, NCC - 719-285-7466

This study examined attentional bias to OC-relevant scenes using a visual search task. Validation, We computed trial-level bias scores (TL-BS) based on the computational methodology of Zvielli et al. To examine whether in line with predictions, the effect of group was mainly due to more extreme AB for threat in the mixed MDD/AD group we used Dunnett’s method for multiple comparisons (two sided). If AB for negative adjectives and/or general threat stimuli would set people at risk for recurrence, this would provide an important lead for clinicians to better tailor their interventions to prevent recurrent episodes of both depressive and anxiety disorders. Resources, Attentional biases may explain an individual's failure to consider alternative possibilities when occupied with an existing train of thought. In these trials, instead of a word cue, a digit appeared for 100 ms at the location of the fixation cross. This study found no consistent evidence for AB towards negative adjectives or away from positive adjectives in strictly defined clinical groups of MDD participants with or without a comorbid AD. 0.21), p < .001, 95% CI [0.23; 1.27], d = 0.40. The traditional AB scores were calculated using the formula suggested by Mogg et al.,[53]: Attentional bias score (AB score) = (median RT invalid emotional cue–median RT valid emotional cue)–(median RT invalid neutral cue–median RT valid neutral cue). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Non-response was considered a missing value and was discarded. See S2 Appendix for an illustration of a valid and invalid trial of the ECT. To test whether differences in AB would be most pronounced when stimuli would be presented for a longer duration as was found in previous analogue research (e.g., [24]), we also included trials with 1250 ms presentation time. Additionally, it is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD. Yes To stay as close to the concept of TL-BS Variability as possible, we eventually decided to use the standard deviation of TL-BSs to index variability in TL-BS. This prediction is based on the hypothesis that AB is a stable vulnerability factor that renders individuals vulnerable for the development of depression. This was true for both AB quantified by traditional AB indices, and AB quantified by trial-level bias scores (TL-BS). Consistent with the view that AB is involved in depression, findings of a meta-analysis covering 29 empirical studies using emotional Stroop or dot probe tasks in individuals with depressive complaints (clinical depression, nonclinical dysphoria, induced depressive mood) havorted the view that depression is associated with biased attention to negative information [12]. Zvielli et al. These words scored high on subjective familiarity in an earlier study investigating 740 Dutch words on affective and subjective familiarity [48]. Brooding, anhedonia, and anxiety were also evaluated. Many of these cognitive models include attentional bias (AB) as both a contributing and a maintaining factor to depression (e.g.,[11]. Software, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205154.t003. The MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect of group (Wilks’ λ = .95, F (24, 2506) = 1.82, p < .01, partial η2 = .01. If a participant did not respond within 2 s, the next trial started. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation We considered indices deviating more than 3 SDs from the mean of the group as outliers for all the groups. See Table 5 for zero-order correlations. To examine whether in line with predictions, the effect of group for the Threat AB score Presentation Time 500 ms that just fell short of the conventional level of significance was mainly due to more extreme AB for threat in the mixed MDD/AD group, we used Dunnett’s method (two sided) for multiple comparisons. Post hoc Bonferroni adjusted between group tests indicated that none of the between group differences with regard to this AB index reached significance. Conceptualization, This study tested the presence of AB for negative adjectives in MDD. Department of Clinical Psychology & Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, Trials with less than 10 reaction times were discarded. The instructions were presented on the computer and the task started with 10 practice trials. According to cognitive models of depression, selective attentional biases (ABs) for mood-congruent information are core vulnerability factors of depression maintenance. In accordance with the view that the traditional and the current temporal indices represent different aspects of AB, the correlations between these indices were very small. Cognitive theories emphasize the role biased processing of affective information has in the development and maintenance of depression [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether negative attentional biases are trainable and causally linked to changes in important characteristics of depression, namely self-esteem. However, it is notable that negative facial expressions include sadness, surprise, anger, etc. There is also evidence that depression is characterized by a lack of attention towards positive information. After completing the assessment, participants were compensated with a €15 gift certificate and travel expenses. Project administration, Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), also known as Attentional Bias Training (ABT), is a computer-based therapy that works by gradually changing your attentional bias. The ECT was introduced during the 2-year follow up measurements and was completed by 2128 out of 2596 (81.97%) participants (61.9% female; mean age 43.63 years, SD = 14.06); 468 (18.02%) participants had no or too little ECT data (e.g., those interviewed over the phone or at home). The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in the maintenance of depression. We hypothesized that especially for the longer presentation times participants with MDD with and without AD’s would be characterized by stronger AB for negative adjectives than the comparison group. In the process of translating we had to make pragmatic choices which might have been suboptimal; more generally the current task was not optimally suited to examine the relevance of TL-BS indices. This pattern indicates that for the long presentation time (1250 ms) the mixed MDD/AD group showed less variability than the comparison group on neutral word trials. In line with our hypothesis only the mixed MDD/AD group tended to differ from the comparison group (mean difference 11.41 ms (s.e. This pattern indicates that for both presentation times the mixed MDD/AD group showed more variability on positive word trials than the comparison group. According to the cognitive model of depression, patients with depression exhibit a negative attentional bias that is manifested by their prioritization of negative cognitive stimuli. The study was supported by ZonMw (OOG) (Grant 100000–2035). In line with previous studies (e.g., [24]), RT’s < 200 ms and RT’s > 1000 ms were considered anticipatory responding and delayed responding, respectively, and were discarded. [30] did (sum of all distances between sequential TL-BSs divided by the number of TL-BSs). The MANOVA showed a significant intercept (Wilks’ λ = .95, F (6, 848) = 6.70, p < .001, partial η2 = .04) indicating that overall the AB scores differed from zero. Third, this study focused on a task where adjectives were task-irrelevant. In this study, we tested the robustness of these earlier findings by comparing a large group of rMDD to never-depressed individuals with regard to their AB for positive and negative adjectives, as well as for general threat words. Also when indexed by trial-level bias scores (iii) there was no evidence for a relatively strong AB for negative adjectives in participants with MDD or mixed MDD/AD; (iv) specifically the mixed MDD/AD group showed higher and more variable mean AB scores towards shortly (500 ms) and away from longer (1250 ms) presented general threat words than the no MDD/AD comparison group; (v) The mixed MDD/AD group showed more variability on positive word trials, and specifically for the longer presentation trials (1250 ms) also higher scores for the AB index away from positive adjectives than the comparison group. The 2-year follow-up assessment included a wide range of outcome measures. Validation, Although, the overall pattern as a function of group was quite similar for both types of indices there were also some notable exceptions: The AB for negative stimuli in rMDD that was only evident for the traditional index whereas the AB away from positive stimuli in the mixed group and the biases for threat stimuli were only evident for the TL-BS. Cognitive Bias Modification can help Boost Your Mood, Reduce Stress and Break Addiction. In the original exogenous cueing paradigm [41], participants are asked to detect a visual target presented at a left or right peripheral location. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205154. Furthermore, attentional bias has been shown to play an important role in the development and maintenance of depressive and anxiety disorders. 5.13), p = .07, 95% CI [-0.84; 23.67], d = 0.23); indicating that the mixed MDD/AD group tended to show higher (less negative) AB-threat scores than the comparison group (see also Table 4). On the remaining trials, the preceding stimulus is presented at the opposite spatial location of the target and thus invalidly cues the target’s location (“invalid” trials). The fourth aim of this study was to investigate AB in remitted depressed (rMDD) participants. In this way we were able to examine whether the pattern of AB in pure MDD participants differed from that in individuals with comorbid AD. The anxious and depressed groups showed an attentional bias towards supraliminal negative words, in comparison with normal controls. The negative and positive adjectives were selected from trait self-descriptors of depressive and manic persons, which were used in a study on AB in depression [47]. Therefore, this vulnerability factor will still be present after recovery of depression thereby contributing to the development of recurrent depressive episodes [8, 11, 28]. This study investigated depression-related AB within the context of a large scale nationwide study on depression and anxiety, which allowed us to select rigorously-defined clinical groups. In addition, an earlier study using a visual probe task depicting words, found that participants who were diagnosed with Dysthymia or MDD showed an AB for socially threatening words [19]. Therefore, more positive AB scores (i.e., stronger cue validity effects) were indicative of a stronger attentional bias towards the emotional information. Supervision, Then during the face-to-face contact the written information was discussed and it was checked whether the information was completely understood. In the first half of the task, word cues were presented for 500 ms, in the second half of the task for 1250 ms. We preferred a fixed order to minimize method variance which we considered important in light of the prospective design of the NESDA study (cf.[49]). 8.48), p = .99, 95% CI [-18.51; 21.99], d = 0.04) nor the rMDD group (mean difference 1.44 ms (s.e. Project administration, Part of the participants used medication such as antidepressants (AD). Resources, 0.35), p = .42, 95% CI [-0.36; 1.34], d = 0.24) did not differ significantly from the comparison group. This is known as the inhibition of return effect (IoR;[54]). (2007) found evidence of threat-related attentional bias in anxiety in reaction time-based studies using the Stroop task ( Stroop, 1935 ) and the visual probe task ( MacLeod et al., 1986 ), but not the spatial cueing task ( Posner, 1980 ). Yes Statistical analyses were run on 96.24% of the data. the ECT used in this study, were included. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Many of these cognitive models include attentional bias (AB) as both a contributing and a maintaining factor to depression (e.g.,. Moreover, the traditional AB-index reflects differential responding to emotional versus neutral cue words, whereas the current TL-BS indices reflect differential responding to validly and invalidly cued trials for each of the cue word types separately. ADs were generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and agoraphobia. 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