It would, therefore, be useful to have a task in which responses are self-generated ( Stacy et al ., 1994 , 1997 ) to look at cognitive biases, but which could also assess other important factors, such as disinhibition. The absence of a measure of gambling-related craving precluded the possibility to test whether both risk-taking and attentional bias were associated with the subjective experience of urge. Attentional bias is a key area of research in the clinical and trait anxiety literature. 22, No. cocaine-related cues, and this measure of cue-reactivity is predictive of craving and relapse. Studies investigating attentional bias to food-related stimuli have employed a variety of these methods either as a sole measure of attention or in combination and (2008). A wealth of research has been conducted to examine attentional biases toward body‐related information among individuals with eating pathology. Indeed, attentional bias for drugs has been linked with disinhibited and excessive drug-related behaviour (Field et al., 2008). Some of this variation may be due to issues with how attentional bias is measured. Methodologies used to measure attention: indirect v. direct methods Attentional bias can be measured using behavioural methods, consisting of indirect and direct measures. In test anxiety research, however, protocols and measures have yet to be reported. Cognition and Emotion: Vol. This performance-based measure records re-sponse latencies of how quickly participants identify the color of different words presented on a computer screen. It has been suggested that attentional bias measures from non-clinical populations could be more inconsistent compared to clinical ones (Mogg et al., 2000; Schmukle, 2005), although data supporting such a claim are scarce. Unfortunately, little attention has been devoted to the psychometric properties of measures from these paradigms. Behavioral measures have been used extensively to index attention toward threatening stimuli, and provide observable indices of the effects of attentional biases. attentional bias to threat. However, because reaction However, there is considerable variability in the methods that have been used to measure attention and, importantly, these methods tap into different attentional processes. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. 7, pp. A variety of methodological paradigms, including dot probe and eye movement tasks, have been used to examine attentional biases to threat in anxiety disorders. attentional bias away from threatening stimuli, or no attentional bias at all, respectively. Anxiety is one of the most common forms of child psychopathology associated with persistent impairment across the lifespan. Responsiveness of measures of attentional bias to clinical change in social phobia. Accordingly, we describe the development of a dot-probe measure of attentional bias for test anxiety. Furthermore, our exclusion criterion only pertains to recent changes in psychopharmacological medication. Attentional bias toward suicide-related and negatively valenced stimuli was measured using a modified Stroop task (Stroop, 1935). Speciﬁcally, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. Within the literature, there is currently a lack of agreement as to the best way to measure attentional bias, with various measures and tasks (e.g., dot probe task, eye tracking, stroop task) being commonly used and reported to measure the same construct. Larger response Measures Attentional bias. In previous work, cue-reactivity and attentional bias have been assessed by models that present drug-relevant stimuli (e.g., cocaine-specific Stroop task) and measure physiological and behavioral reactivity (e.g., heart rate, reaction times). 1209-1227.
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