A 2018 article “Landslides and Giant Waves” by the National Park Service (NPS) states, “... We usually hear about landslides and avalanches that are caused by large amounts of rainfall, the shaking from earthquakes, or a volcanic eruption, but we may be hearing more about avalanches caused by the (seemingly innocuous) melting of ice in the coming years. A melting Alaska glacier could trigger an unprecedented ‘mega-tsunami,’ scientists have warned. But geology is more than a historic or local science, as geological forces shaped and still influence history worldwide. The earthquake occurred along this fault, triggering a rockfall from the mountains. Juli dieses Jahres kam es um 22 Ortszeit an der Fairweather-Bruchline (58.340 N; 136.520 W), die sich nordwestlich der Bucht befindet, zu einem Erdbeben der Stärke 8,3 auf der Richterskala, dessen Epizentrum knapp dreizehn Meilen von Lityua Bay entfernt lag. More recently, in 2015, a rock avalanche in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve about 300 kilometers northwest of GBNPP, travelled about 5 kilometers into Taan Fiord, and generated a tsunami that ran about 190 meters up the shoreline. The largest tsunami ever recorded occurred in 1958 in Lituya Bay, Alaska, per the United States Geological Survey. Die entstehenden Felsstürze bedecken Gebiete zwischen 5,5 und 22,2 Kubikkilometern. I'm a freelance geologist working mostly in the Eastern Alps. Tsunami-inducing landslides are rare but have occurred in Alaska and elsewhere. Photo credit: Gabe Wolken. It … AN UNPRECEDENTED 'mega-tsunami' could be caused by a melting Alaska glacier, scientists have warned. The impact generated a local tsunami that crashed against the southwest shore… Glacier Bay and its inlets are a popular destination for cruise ships and passenger boats; about 540,000 people visited Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GBNPP) in 2017. The tsunami did have some impact outside the fjord, but did not reach coastal habitations. Lituya Bay, on the west side of the park (part of Glacier Bay National Monument in 1958), has experienced at least 3 tsunamis, the largest occurring in 1958 from an M7.8 earthquake on the Fairweather fault that triggered a rockslide. If someone dares to disturb its sleep, it will violently shake the land and the sea. Im Glacier Bay National Park in SE Alaska sind laut unseren Kollegen Coe et al. Landslide Inventory Map. Dort brechen häufig über 50 Meter hoh… The Lituya Bay earthquake was powerful enough to generate a series of smaller landslides, both in the sea as on land, at a distance of 155 miles from the quake epicenter. Researchers have also completed other surveys of the landslide areas. An interesting find emerged during the study—Bathymetry data used during the research revealed a previously hidden landslide at the junction of Johns Hopkins and Tarr inlets that appears to have occurred sometime after 1892 when glaciers withdrew from the area. What areas of Glacier Bay can have landslides. Get more information on the interagency web site, "Barry Arm Landslide and Tsunami Hazard.". 2017; Dufresne et al. A landslide on the Lamplugh Glacier, in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, on June 28 caused seismic tremors about as strong as a small earthquake. Still, Alaskans should understand the risk and follow advice from emergency managers to prepare for a tsunami in the unlikely event that one occurs. At the beginning of the 20th century, the bay entrance was permanently blocked by a giant tidewater glacier face that calved icebergs directly into the Gulf of Alaska. There is clearly more work to be done to understand the risk posed by these natural hazards. Lituya Bay’s steep walls, the geometry of its seafloor, and the fact that it intersects a fault that is often a source of earthquakes suggests that Lituya Bay will see more tsunamis in the future. A giant, catastrophic tsunami in Alaska triggered by a landslide of rock left unstable after glacier melting is likely to occur in the next two decades, scientists fear - and it could happen within the next 12 months. The two arms that create the top of the T-shape of the bay are the Gilbert and Crillon inlets and are a part of a trench on the Fairweather Fault. Is the unstable slope in Barry Arm moving now? Estimated 40 million cubic yards of rock fell for 3,000 feet hitting the Lituya Glacier. A typical tour of the Bay traverses the entire length up to the glacier calving viewpoints in the Johns Hopkins and Tarr Inlets. In 2018, the National Park Service (NPS) article “Landslides and Giant Waves” said, “The combination of recent deglaciation, relatively frequent earthquakes, steep rocky slopes, and narrow inlets suggests that many locations in Glacier Bay have the potential for generating large tsunami waves” that could pose a threat to ships or boats nearby. 4 Dramatic footage shows a huge chunk of glacier dropping into the sea and triggering a wave in Alaska. (Getty) Melting glaciers in Alaska could unleash a ‘mega-tsunami’, an enormously high wall of water with incredible destructive power, scientists have warned. It is a T-shaped bay with a width of 2 miles (3 km) and a length of 7 miles (11 km). The landslide loosened some 40 million cubic yards of debris spawned a … A "big wall of water," according to Ulrich 50 to 75 feet high, swept through the bay washing away rocks and trees along the shores. If this landslide were to fail and move rapidly into the fjord, it could trigger a tsunami that would threaten local communities. Living in one of the classic areas of early geological research, I combine field trips with the historic maps, figures and research done there. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, August-September 2020 issue of the Sound Waves newsletter, USGS scientists recommended more fieldwork, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar data from 2020 for landslides at Barry Arm Fjord, Alaska, Potential Landslide Paths and Implications for Tsunami Hazards in Glacier Bay, Alaska – An Initial Investigation, Mountain Permafrost, Climate Change, and Rock Avalanches in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. Although landslide-generated tsunamis are historically uncommon in GBNPP, there have been plenty of landslides in and near the park, and some of them have produced tsunamis. With the recognition that these conditions pose a possible risk to GBNPP visitors, USGS landslide scientists recently completed an investigation and published a 2019 report in the NPS “Alaska Park Science” series that provides an initial assessment of areas where landslides could enter the water of Glacier Bay and generate tsunamis. The seven miles long and two miles narrow Lituya Bay was protected from waves by two promontories, separating it from the open sea, and a popular fishing spot for locals at the time. The results indicate that Landslide A has shown little to no movement, with less than an inch of change. Based on this initial investigation, USGS scientists recommended more fieldwork to determine geologic conditions that control landslide occurrence and size, systematic monitoring of steep slopes to detect slow movements or deformations that could possibly provide warning of landslide events, and tsunami modeling to determine the boat size that could be threatened by landslide-generated waves. Bis zu einer Höhe von 520 Metern wurden die … The landslide and tsunami occurred within Taan Fiord, and fortunately didn’t impact any structures. A tale told by the native Tlingit Indians locates a mysterious cave deep below Lituya Bay. According to the legends, qa-htu-‘a still there, ready to send another deadly tsunami at any time. Studying therefore old maps, photographs and reports, I became interested in the history of geology and how early geologists figured out how earth works, blogging about it in my spare time. With increased effects of climate change predicted for the future, it is important to investigate the potential impacts to landslide hazards and any associated risks to park visitors. Existing digital data on landslide occurrence are held by a range of Federal, State, and local government agencies, and no central point of access has previously been available. AN UNPRECEDENTED 'mega-tsunami' could be caused by a melting Alaska glacier, scientists have warned. The moment was captured from a day cruise boat out … In recent years, there has been a spate of large landslides in GBNPP that corresponded to record-breaking warm temperatures in Alaska. Yellow dots show how high the tsunami reached above water level (runup) in meters. French explorer Jean-François de La Pérouse who explored Alaska in 1786, noted that the shores of Lituya Bay "had been cut cleanly like with a razor blade," suggesting that a tsunami occurred shortly before his arrival. Howard Ulrich, a fisherman visiting Lituya Bay with his 8-years-old son that day, at first heard a loud rumbling noise from up at the head of the bay, followed a moment later by what he describes as "an atomic explosion." It originated above land, but most of the deposit is underwater in Glacier Bay. On July 9, 1958, an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.7-8.3 triggered an enormous rockfall in a remote bay along the Gulf of Alaska. Another boat with two persons on board vanished without a trace into the open sea, carried away by the tsunami. USGS scientists want to answer these questions: The USGS investigation determined where landslides could start and where they could travel within GBNPP. USGS landslide scientists recently completed an investigation that provides an initial assessment of areas where landslides could enter the water of Glacier Bay and generate tsunamis. In the cave lives the evil spirit qa-htu-‘a, similar in appearance to a great toad or frog. After scrutinizing the bay’s geology and history for years, one scientist calculated giant waves happen there once every quarter century—a 1 in 9000 chance on any given day. In 1958, a landslide into Alaska’s Lituya Bay created a 524-meter wave – the tallest ever recorded. Lituya Bay is an ice-scoured tidal inlet with a maximum depth of 722 feet (220 m). Instead, all the recent rockslides and rock avalanches were apparently caused by climatic conditions, totaling at least 24 between 1984 and 2016. Since 1853 at least four or five similar events are documented. “Although landslides occur in every State, our understanding of landslide hazards at the national scale is limited because landslide information across the United States is incomplete, varies in quality, accessibility, and extent, and what is known is not collected in a central location,” said Jonathan Godt, USGS program coordinator for Landslide Hazards. EY & Citi On The Importance Of Resilience And Innovation, Impact 50: Investors Seeking Profit — And Pushing For Change, Michigan Economic Development Corporation BrandVoice. Aerial view of Barry Arm Fjord and glacier on June 26, 2020, showing outlines of potential landslide areas. Photo courtesy of Paul Swanstrom, Mountain Flying Service. A cruise ship in the Johns Hopkins Inlet with a June 28, 2016 rock-avalanche deposit on the Lamplugh Glacier, Glacier Bay, Alaska. The concerned experts claim the catastrophic event could even happen within the next 12 months if melting ice triggers a landslide of unstable rocks. Perhaps the most famous occurred on July 9, 1958, in Lituya Bay on Alaska’s southeast coast, when a nearby earthquake caused 40 million cubic yards of rock to slide 2,000 feet into the narrow bay. The largest recent landslide in GBNPP was a 2016 rock avalanche on the Lamplugh glacier with the equivalent volume of roughly 28,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools. Although tsunamis often travel across the open ocean at speeds in excess of 300 mph, they may pass under ships without being noticed. All Rights Reserved, This is a BETA experience. On July 9, 1958, an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.7-8.3 triggered an enormous rockfall in a remote bay along the Gulf of Alaska. A glacier in Alaska is threatening to trigger a potentially deadly and historic tsunami as it retreats under the overheated stress of climate change. The concerned experts claim the catastrophic event could even happen within the next 12 months if melting ice triggers a landslide of unstable rocks. Lituya Bay, on the west side of the park (part of Glacier Bay National Monument in 1958), has experienced at least 3 tsunamis, the largest occurring in 1958 from an M7.8 earthquake on the Fairweather fault that triggered a rockslide. The October 2015 Tyndall Glacier rock avalanche caused one of the largest historic tsunamis in Alaska; maximum wave runup height measured from field evidence was 192 m (Haeussler et al. Lituya Bay is a fjord located on the Fairweather Fault in the northeastern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Der Glacier-Bay-Nationalpark (englisch Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve) ist ein Nationalpark der USA im Süden von Alaska, in der Nähe von Juneau, im sogenannten Alaska Panhandle. Glacier Bay and its inlets are a popular destination for cruise ships and passenger boats; about 540,000 people visited Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GBNPP) in 2017. You may opt-out by. Map of Glacier Bay showing the relative probability of landslides entering the water along the coastline of the West Arm. Icy Bay, Alaska. A century-long glacial retreat has opened a multi-armed bay more than 30 miles (48 km) long. Am 7. Ice and water from the glacier contributed to the tsunami generated by the sudden impact on the surface of the sea. Rock avalanches are particularly dangerous because they involve large volumes of earth material, they can move long distances (>1 kilometer), and they can travel very fast (up to 100 meters per second). In May 2020, a large but slow-moving landslide, known as the Barry Arm landslide, was discovered 31 miles from Whittier, AK, on Prince William Sound. The tsunami reached 524 m above sea level on the opposite shoreline and killed two people in a small boat. The narrow entrance of the bay has a depth of only 33 feet (10 m). Aerial photo of Lituya Bay showing traces of the 1958 tsunami in the vegetation regrown decades... [+] after the event. This rock avalanche occurred during the warmest year on record in Alaska. Im Park gibt es über 50 benannte Gletscher, 7 davon reichen bis in das von den Gezeiten beeinflusste Wasser der von Fjorden wie dem Tarr Inlet durchzogenen, Glacier Bay genannten Bucht (Gletscher-Bucht). See the data in the report, "Interferometric synthetic aperture radar data from 2020 for landslides at Barry Arm Fjord, Alaska.". Gigantic waves will catch the intruder, transforming it into a bear, common animals in the Alaskan wilderness. In the past 150 years Lituya Bay has had three other … Zwei dieser Stürze werden von Arbeitsgruppen untersucht, mit denen Dr. Anja Dufresne vom Institut für Ingenieurgeologie zusammenarbeitet. Within Glacier Bay National Park, a slope on the north side of Tidal Inlet has been slowly moving since at least the early 1900s, but has ... (For a graphic depiction of the relative size of Alaska's largest tsunami-generating landslides, see this letter.) Portions of the head and toe of the smaller Landslide B have shown a relatively small 3 inches of movement during the same period. Until now, no Federal agency has taken on the monumental task of systematically cataloging landslide occurrence across the United States. I graduated in 2007 with a project studying how permafrost, that´s frozen soil, is reacting to the more visible recent changes of the alpine environment. Additional radar images will be compared throughout the coming months until snowpack obscures the slope faces. Although there have been at least 90 M>4 earthquakes within 100 kilometers of Glacier Bay since 1958, none have been large or close enough to trigger landslides in the Park. Local legends record even earlier events, predating modern explorers and scientists by centuries. The areas of destroyed forest along the shorelines... [+] are recognizable as the light areas rimming the bay. Since public safety is the priority, the USGS and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys have been remotely monitoring movement of the large landslide (Landslide A), a smaller landslide (Landslide B), and the northwest-facing slope on the opposite side of Barry Glacier every 24 days using satellite radar images. Seen from above Lituya Bay and its two glaciers appears shaped like the letter T, a particular shape caused by the Fairweather Fault, crossing the end of the bay from southeast to northwest. I deal with the rocky road to our modern understanding of earth. In collaboration with State geological surveys and other Federal agencies, the USGS has compiled much of the existing landslide data into a searchable, web-based interactive map called the U.S. This article is part of the August-September 2020 issue of the Sound Waves newsletter. The boat was carried by the wave above the trees and luckily washed back into the bay, both Howard Ulrich and his son survived. In the confines of Glacier Bay, a locally generated tsunami could produce massive waves that slosh up the hillsides in bathtub fashion. However, there is no evidence a significant failure is imminent, or that one will happen anytime soon. Tsunami-inducing landslides are rare but have occurred in Alaska and elsewhere. 2018). Melting glaciers in Prince William Sound in Alaska could lead to a mega tsunami, scientists have said. These baseline data will serve to assess future landslide movement and released when analyzed. 2018; Higman et al. © 2020 Forbes Media LLC. Lituya Bay a few weeks after the 1958 tsunami. The most recent satellite data were obtained between July 13 and August 13. Published September 7, 2018 A 200 million-ton landslide landed on the toe of Tyndall Glacier and in the water of Taan Fiord on Oct. 17, 2015, Icy Bay, Alaska. Smaller tsunami, with a maximal wave height of 20 feet, were recorded in the Yakutat Bay, Disenchantment Bay, Dry Bay, Glacier Bay, Inian Island, Skagway and Dixon Harbor. are recognizable as the light areas rimming the bay. Local, state, and federal partners are working to understand the likelihood of rapid movement of the landslide, to put in place a tsunami warning system, and to educate people about steps to take should such a tsunami occur. Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. (2018) seit 1984 mindestens 24 große Felsstürze aufgetreten. There is evidence that they are increasing in size and travel distance. The tsunami reached 524 m above sea level on the opposite shoreline and killed two people in a small boat. A typical tour of the Bay traverses the entire length of the Bay to the glacier calving viewpoints in the Johns Hopkins and Tarr Inlets. Mega-tsunami hundreds of metres tall feared if Alaskan glacier disappears ... creating a tsunami wave potentially hundreds of metres high. In addition, the National Weather Service National Tsunami Warning Center is working to put a tsunami warning system in place. Trees washed away be the wave along the slopes of the Gilbert Inlet, on the opposite shore, suggests a maximum wave height of 1,720 feet, taller than the Empire State Building in New York. Juli 1958 verursachte ein Erdbeben einen Erdrutsch am östlichen Ende (landeinwärts gelegen), bei dem 90 Millionen Tonnen Gestein und Eis in die Bucht stürzten. It’s unknown whether or not it created a tsunami, but its size makes it the largest known landslide within GBNPP. Geological evidence, historical observations, and even myths suggest that such megatsunami are quite common along the Gulf Of Alaska. This mass of rock plunged from an altitude of approximately 3000 feet (914 meters) down into the waters of Gilbert Inlet (see map below). Areas with the most potential for landslides entering the water (where they could possibly generate waves that could affect boats) are the Johns Hopkins, Tarr, Rendu, and Tidal Bay Inlets. In Alaska’s 1964 earthquake, most deaths were from tsunamis … Diese enorme Menge hatte einen Megatsunami zur Folge. Satellite image of the Lituya Bay in Alaska. On the night of July 9, 1958, an earthquake along the Fairweather Fault in the Alaska Panhandle loosened about 40 million cubic yards (30.6 million cubic meters) of rock high above the northeastern shore of Lituya Bay. I'm a freelance geologist working mostly in the Eastern Alps. I graduated in 2007 with a project studying how permafrost, that´s frozen soil, is reacting to the more. In October 2019, the USGS unveiled a new web-based interactive map that marks an important step toward mapping areas that could be at higher risk for future landslides. Der wohl spektakulärste Mega-Tsunami dieser Art ereignete sich im Jahr 1958 in der Lituya Bay, einer T-förmigen Bucht von 11 km Länge und 1.3 km Breite im Glacier Bay National Park an der südlichen Ostküste Alaskas.
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